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(原标题)软实力超级大国

Global trends in cultural engagement and influence

(副标题)全球文化参与与文化影响力变化趋势

Author: Alistair MacDonald

作者:阿利斯泰尔·麦克唐纳

Conclusion
The UK is, currently, the world’s leading soft power. But there are many uncertainties for the future. Brexit itself has yet to happen and the full repercussions of the UK’s decision to leave the European unx will not become clear for years perhaps decades to come. This paper provides a soft power perspective on the changed world the UK faces as it charts a new course in the post-Brexit era.

【结论】
目前,英国是世界主要的软实力强国。但未来存在着很多不确定性。英国脱欧还没有发生,英国决定脱离欧盟引发的全部反响在未来几年中,也许是几十年中都不会变得很明朗。这份报告为英国在后脱欧时代中制定新路线时所面对的这个已经发生变化的世界,给出了从软实力角度出发的透视。



The comparison analysis highlights both the commonalities and diversity of approaches adopted by states to develop their soft power activity. Some countries’ approaches are clearly proving more effective than others, with levels of spend and size of physical networks not necessarily the most important indicator of soft power success. However, the longer-term implications of the rapid change in soft power spend are unclear and it may simply be that there is a time lag between increases in activity and impact. Soft power has always been a long-term investment – it takes time and continued engagement to foster trust and shift perceptions. It would be reasonable to anticipate growing influence for those states that are now significantly ramping up their activity. The long-term impact of China’s engagement with Sub-Saharan Africa is particularly telling in this regard, public opinion is already becoming more positive and it will be fascinating to see how this develops as relationships mature.

此次的比较分析同时强调了各国为了扩展其软实力活动而所采用手段的共性和差异性。有些国家的手段经验证明显比其他一些国家的更为有效,实体网络的规模和投入的水平并不一定是成功增强软实力的最重要指标。但是,在软实力投入上的急剧变化带来的长期影响尚不清楚,可能仅仅是活动的增多和带来的影响之间存在一段时间间隔。软实力一直都是一种长期投资,需要等待时日以及持续的参与来培育信任乃至带来看法的转变。比较合理的预期是,那些国家不断增强的影响力如今正在显著增加它们的活动数量。就这一点而言,中国涉入撒哈拉以南的非洲地区所带来的长期影响特别能说明问题,(对华)公众舆论已经变得更加正面,随着关系的日渐成熟,看着这种情况将如何发展会很让人着迷的。

There are certainly lessons for the UK from the different approaches of other soft powers. Germany’s investment in cultural relations has had a direct benefit to its economy and is a model worth careful scrutiny. The emphasis on student mobility – both bringing international students to the country and ensuring young Germans gain international experience in Asia is particularly important. The Commonwealth represents a clear opportunity for the UK. As a family of nations, it is united by shared values – democracy, freedom of speech, human rights and the rule of law – as much as it is by its shared linguistic, legal and cultural history. These values are robust foundations on which the UK can build greater multilateral lixs. The experience of Brazil with the CPLP offers insight on how the UK might seek to re-energise the Commonwealth.

对英国来说,其他软实力强国各自不同的手段当然是值得学习和借鉴的。德国对文化关系的投资给其经济带来了直接的益处,并且这是一种值得仔细研究的模式。对学生流动性的注重尤其重要,既要为该国带来国际学生,也要确保德国年轻人在亚洲获取到国际经验。英联邦为英国带来的是显见的机遇。作为一个由多国组成的大家庭,其团结凭借的是共同价值观:民主,言论,人权和法治,以及共同的语言,法律和文化历史。这些价值观是英国有能力建立更宏大多边联系的坚实基础。巴西在葡语国家共同体方面的经验,为英国应该如何寻求重新激发英联邦的活力,提供了洞见。



– Consider its soft power priorities for the future. In recent years it has been reducing its soft power footprint in developed nations, targeting funding on the developing world. While the priority given to the Global South makes strategic sense for the UK’s long-term security and prosperity, there is an urgent need for investment in the developed world to restore trust and confidence with European allies and deepen connections with countries like Canada, Japan, Australia and the US to safeguard the UK’s position in the short and medium term.

-为英国的未来计,要考虑清楚发展软实力的优先级。近些年来,英国将资金的投放瞄准了发展中国家,其在发达国家的软实力存在一直在减退。虽然为英国长期的安全和繁荣计,给南半球赋予优先级从战略角度看是合情合理的,但迫切需要对发达国家进行投资,好让欧洲盟友恢复对英国的信任和信心,并深化与加拿大,日本,澳大利亚和美国之类国家的关系,以在短期和中期守护英国的地位。



– Address the growing skills gap in the UK workforce by encouraging language learning in schools and universities and supporting the outward mobility of UK students – it isn’t just linguists who need international experience, intercultural skills are increasingly important in a globalised economy as the German experience shows. The UK should also continue to participate in Erasmus+ and look at ways to expand opportunities outside the EU and its immediate neighbourhood, for example through the introduction of a similar programme for the Commonwealth. Exchange programmes like Erasmus+ that promote the two-way traffic of international students both build relations with future leaders and empower citizens of the home nations to confidently and effectively engage internationally.

-通过鼓励学校和大学中的外语学习,并支持英国学生的向外流动,设法解决在英国劳动力中日益严重的技能缺口问题,正如德国的经验所显示的那样,不只是语言学家需要国际经验,跨文化技能在全球化经济中也越来越重要。英国还应继续参加伊拉兹马斯奖学金项目,并考虑以各种方法扩大其在欧盟及邻国之外的机会,比如可以为英联邦国家引进类似的项目,诸如伊拉兹马斯之类的交流项目可以促进国际学生的双向流动,既能和未来的领导人建立关系,也能让本国公民自信且高效地参与到国际中去。

(译注:伊拉兹马斯项目是欧洲一体化的产物,鼓励欧洲的学生在学习期间在欧洲大学之间流动。所有项目至少由三个不同成员国的大学联合设立,在专业点学习的欧洲学生在学习期间至少应在其中两所大学学习,其获得的文凭得到相关国家的承认)